Doshas have a capability of affecting other constituents of the body which are termed as ‘dhatu’ and ‘mala’. Due to this capability and property of affecting/ spoiling healthy tissues the term ‘dosha’ is assigned to them.
According to Ayurveda, the whole mortal creation is standing on the foundation of five basic elements which are called as ‘panchmahabhootas’. These five elements are: ether, air, fire, water and earth. Doshas are no exception and are made up of a combination of these panchmahabhootas only. Vatta is combination of ether and air, pitta is comprised by fire and kapha is a constitution of earth and water. Though, all the five elements are present in differing proportions but the dominant ones are characteristically expressed.
A balance between these three constituents of body results in health whereas any deviation from the normalcy leads to development of disease. In balanced form, doshas carry out the normal functioning of the various metabolic processes in body like normal nervous system functioning, carrying out digestion and lubricating various parts and joints to facilitate free and easy movement of the limbs. These three doshas are invisible with naked eyes. But they can be defined as the principles of the metabolism which are responsible for carrying out the basic functions of body.
Doshas define the prakriti of an individual right from the time of conception. Prakriti is the individual’s constitution of body. It is different and distinguished for every individual. Prakriti also helps to explain the vulnerability of an individual to various diseases and explains the reason behind several so called idiopathic factors in modern science. An individual can enjoy a disease free and healthy life by knowing his doshaj prakriti. By inculcating defined measures and precautions one can lead a healthy life and can keep the diseases at a bay.